Leaders of the Group of 20 economies will have some thorny issues to work through when they meet in Osaka on Friday for their annual summit. They're under intense pressure to steer the global economy safely through a period of escalating trade frictions and geopolitical brinkmanship.
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, US President Donald Trump and Chinese President Xi Jinping will all be attending.
It's Japan's first experience as host of the G20 summit. The meetings date back to 2008 when the leaders held an emergency gathering to discuss their response to the global financial crisis.
The representatives will use the 2-day summit in Osaka to discuss trade, technological innovation and climate change, among other issues.
The meeting comes as trade frictions between the US and China cast a shadow over the global economy. Tensions between the US and Iran are also deepening the sense of uncertainty.
Each year, the G20 summit doubles as an opportunity to engage in some high-level diplomacy. Many countries have arranged for their leaders to meet on the sidelines for one-on-one talks.
Observers will be keeping a close eye on an expected meeting between Trump and Xi.
The US has warned that if it can't get a satisfactory deal at the summit it will increase tariffs on almost all imports from China.